Technical Data & Terms

 

 

Aluminum

 PREMIUM FLUX-COATED ALUMINUM JOINING AND BUILD-UP ALLOY FOR ARC OR TORCH

                                                            General Characteristics
Universal aluminum electrode for arc welding aluminum and aluminum alloys. Welds are strong, dense on both production and maintenance applications. Arc is exceptionally stable, operates at low amperes with a minimum of spatter and fuming. Weld deposits have good color match and corrosion resistance. Ideal for welding heat treated aluminum parts. Can also be used as a flux coated aluminum joining and build-up rod for use with oxy-acetylene.

                                                                    Applications
Repairing of automotive, truck and bus parts. Also for tanks, pipes, ladders, shelves and many other aluminum structures. Repair of machining errors and build-up of missing sections of castings, extrusions, plates, etc.

                                                                  Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:     up to 34,000 psi (24 kg/mm2)
Elongation %:                       15-25
Typical Hardness (HB):       40-55
Color Match:                         good (will darken if anodized)
Current:                                 DC reverse polarity only (electrode +)
Amperage:                           80-130
                                               1/8"
                                               3.25mm


                                                                     Procedure
Clean weld area thoroughly prior to welding with a stainless steel wire brush. Parts 1/8" or heavier should be beveled 70-90°. No preheat is necessary on thin gauges but faster, flatter, smoother welds are produced on heavier sections if they are preheated to approximately 400°F (205°C) Hold electrode vertical to workpiece, maintain a short arc and fast travel speed. Use either stringer beads or weaving technique. Remove slag between passes. Restart arc on existing weld deposits. Allow part to cool slowly. Chip off all slag before quenching. Always remove all slag residue.

 

 

 

Brazing

                    MULTI-DEOXIDIZED LOW FUMING BRONZE BARE AND FLUX COATED

                                                           General Characteristics
Brazing alloy is available both bare and flux-coated. The bare rods are for use with US Forge Brazing Flux. The flux-coated rods eliminate the need for additional fluxes, therefore they usually prove to be more economical. Both the bare and flux-coated rods are made to meet today’s industry standards.

                                                                   Applications
Maintenance repair of most ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Ideal for joining parts of metal furniture, bicycles, automobiles and many more items where heat distortion does not allow for arc welding.

                                                                 Technical Data
Nominal Analysis:                   Cu-58%, Sn-1.0%, Mn-0.40%, Fe-0.75%, Si-0.10%, Zn-remainder
Working Temperature:           1600°F (870°C)
Typical Hardness (HB):         80-110
Specifications:                        AWS A5.7 Class R CuZn-C
                                                  ASTM B259 Class R CuZn-C
                                                  QQ-R-571a (FS-R CuZn-3)
Diameter:                                 3/32"             1/8"
                                                   2.5mm         3.25mm

                                                                      Procedure
Use slightly oxidizing flame concentrated on the base metal. When using bare rods, heat end of rod, dip into US Forge flux and transfer to the working area. Put the torch flame where the alloy is wanted; the molten alloy will follow the heat. Do not overheat; the base metal must not be melted except when fusion welding bronze parts. Allow to cool slowly. Remove flux residue with chipping hammer and wire brush.

 

 

Cast Iron

                                 MAXIMUM STRENGTH ALLOY FOR DIRTY CAST IRON

                                                            General Characteristics
Unique flux coating on alloyed core wire produces dense, strong, crack-resistant welds on virtually all types of cast iron. Especially good for contaminated, old, oil-soaked, dirty base metal. Also recommended for joining cast iron to steel. Use on gray, ductile, Meehanite and nodular cast iron. Deposits are machinable.

                                                                      Applications
Use on machine bases, transmission or gear housings, sprockets, repair of or build-up on gears and any repair of cast iron to steel.

                                                                     Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:             up to 60,000 (42 kg/mm2)
Typical Hardness (HB):               Brinell 210
Current:                                          AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode +)
Amperage:                                    70-110
Diameter :                                     1/8"
                                                        3.25mm

                                                                       Procedure
On heavy sections, remove worn, cracked metal, and bevel joint using the US Forge Cutting rod or a grinding wheel. When repairing cracks, drill “stop” hole at either end to prevent crack travel while welding. Use short stringer beads. Use a short to medium arc length and the lowest amperage possible to minimize base metal overheating. When breaking arc, always back step into weld crater. Weld joints should be allowed to slow cool for maximum strength and machinability.
 

 

 

Cutting

                                       HIGH SPEED GOUGING AND CHAMFERING ELECTRODE


                                                           General Characteristics
A highly efficient electrode that performs with all types of welding machines with sufficient capacity*. The forceful arc-blow is produced by the special coating which eliminates the need for compressed air or oxygen. The size and depth of the groove can be easily controlled. Dross practically falls off; cut is smooth, uniform and can be done in all positions.
*Contact Technical Service at 800-343-3758 for assistance.

                                                                    Applications
Gouging and chamfering of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Removing unwanted or defective weld metal, preparing parts prior to welding, removing risers and reducing large areas of metal prior to machining.

                                                                  Technical Data
Current:                 AC or DC straight polarity (electrode -)
Amperage:           100-250
Diameter:              3/32"
                               2.5mm

                                                                     Procedure
For clean high speed cuts use DC straight polarity (electrode - ) Hold electrode at a low angle to the work-piece (10° to 15°). Point the electrode in the direction of the desired groove, strike the arc and push the electrode as fast as the metal is removed. Maintain contact with the electrode to the work-piece when gouging. The maximum depth of the groove in a single pass should not be greater than the diameter of the core wire. For deep grooves, use multiple passes.

 

 

Nickel 55

               NICKEL-IRON ELECTRODE FOR WELDING CAST IRON AWS-ENiFE-CI

                                                            General Characteristics
A nickel-iron type electrode for welding cast iron in all positions. This electrode produces welds with higher strengths than the straight nickel electrodes. Deposits are machinable, but harder and more resistant to abrasion than high-nickel welds.

                                                                   Applications
Welding cast irons and nodular iron and joining these irons to steel and other ferrous and non- ferrous materials. Also for heavy sections of high-strength and engineering-grade cast iron. Commonly used to weld high-phosphorus irons and steels, ductile iron and high-nickel alloy cast iron.

                                                                 Technical Data
Current:                AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode +)
Amperage:          40-95 70-120
Diameter:            3/32"       1/8"
                             2.5mm     3.25mm
Specifications:   AWS A5.15 Class ENiFe-CI

                                                                   Procedure
When preheat is required, preheat cast iron parts to 600°F (315°C). Steels and other materials usually do not require preheat unless they are complicated and contain excessive stresses. Use stringer beads or narrow weave beads. Remove slag between passes when making multiple layers. Maintain preheat temperature during entire welding operation; when completed allow part to cool very slowly.

 

 

Nickel 99

                       NICKEL ELECTRODE FOR WELDING CAST IRON AWS - ENi-CI


                                                        General Characteristics
A high nickel content electrode with an extruded coating for welding cast iron. Welds are easily produced in all positions and the deposits are readily machined.

                                                                   Applications
Used to join ordinary gray irons to themselves or to other ferrous and non-ferrous materials. Also for repair of castings when machining is to be done after welding. Welds can be satisfactorily produced on light and medium-size castings.

                                                                  Technical Data
Current:              AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode +)
Amperage:        40-75 65-115
Diameter:          3/32          1/8
                           2.5mm      3.25mm
SPECIFICATIONS: AWS A5.15 Class ENi-CI

                                                                     Procedure
In most cases preheating or post-heating will not be necessary, but in cold weather or when special machining qualities are desired the part should be preheated to 400°F (204°C) Stringer beads and intermittent welds should be employed to reduce stresses and cracks; peening while still hot also helps reduce these problems. Allow part to cool slowly.

 

 

Problem Solver

 THE STRONGEST, PROBLEM SOLVING, UNIVERSAL ELECTRODE FOR ALL STEELS


                                                        General Characteristics
A low heat input electrode designed to produce the highest tensile welds. It can be used in all positions to produce smooth, porosity free welds without undercut or spatter.

                                                                 Applications
Welding low, medium, and high alloy steels requiring the highest strength and quality. Ideal for repair of springs, carbon steels, stainless steels, and as an underlayment or buffer prior to applying hardfacing alloys. Commonly used for joining stainless steels of unknown analysis and these steels to carbon steels. Ideal for broken stud removal.

                                                              Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:         as welded up to 120,000 psi (84 kg/mm2)
                                                     work hardens up to 180,000 psi (126 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:             up to 90,000 psi (63 kg/mm2)
Elongation %:                            approx. 28
Typical Hardness (HB):           approx. 300
Current:                                      AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode+)
Amperage:                                 65-120
Diameter:                                   1/8"
                                                     3.25mm

                                                                  Procedure
Prepare joint area by removing foreign material. Bevel heavy sections to form a 90° vee. Preheat high carbon steels to 400°F (204°C). Use jigs, fixtures and tack welds to maintain alignment. Hold a short arc. Stringer beads are preferred to prevent overheating. Allow to cool before removing slag. Deposits will take a high polish when subjected to wear. All welds on stainless steel should be cleaned with a stainless steel wire brush.

 

 

RustBuster

PREMIUM, HIGH STRENGTH, ALL POSITION ELECTRODE FOR QUALITY WELDS ON VERY DIRTY, RUSTY AND PAINTED STEELS


                                                        General Characteristics
The special premium coating on Rustbuster allows it to weld over extremely dirty, greasy, oil soaked and/or rusty steels. It can also weld over its own slag without causing inclusions or slag interference. The low amperage capability makes it excellent for poor fit-up applications and use on low, open circuit voltage buzz boxes. It is not necessary to chip slag between passes.

                                                                Applications
Ideal for maintenance applications where poor fit-up is encountered. Welds are also easily made on equipment or machines that are covered with grease and sand that can’t be cleaned before welding. Designed for machine and automotive repair as well as general construction and fabrication.

                                                              Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:       up to 85,000 psi (58 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:           up to 69,000 psi (48 kg/mm2)
Elongation %: .                        approx. 25
Current:                                     AC or DC (either polarity)
Amperage:                               20-100           30-140
                                                     3/32"                1/8"
                                                     2.5mm          3.25mm
Deposition Rate:(lbs. per hour)   1.2-2.0          1.9-2.6

                                                                 Procedure
If possible, clean the weld areas as much as is practical. Set the amperage to the specific requirements. If an edge build-up is required or it is thin steel, use the lower end of the amperage range. If heavy penetration is required or the weld area is extremely dirty use the higher end of the amperage range. A close to medium arc gap should be maintained. Slag chipping is recommended, but not necessary on multi-pass applications.

 

 

Steel

PREMIUM QUALITY, EASIEST-TO-USE, ALL POSITION ELECTRODE FOR MILD STEEL


                                                           General Characteristics
This electrode has been designed to operate on almost any AC or DC welding machine even when the open circuit voltage is very low. The
special coating protects the weld deposit from adverse conditions normally encountered in maintenance repair welding. Low amperage requirement controls distortion when welding thin sheet metal. Virtually no spatter. Easiest to use electrode for out-of-position welding. Ideal for field work.

                                                                    Applications
Ideal for fabrication of thin and medium gauge mild steels. Plate and angle iron can be easily welded in all positions. Also used for filling holes or build up of worn or over machined low carbon steel surfaces.

                                                                  Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:            up to 80,000 psi (56 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:                up to 68,000 psi (47 kg/mm2)
Elongation%:                                approx. 24
Current:                                         AC or DC either polarity
Amperage:                                   35-80          65-125
                                                       3/32"          1/8"
                                                       2.5mm        3.25mm

                                                                     Procedure
Clean weld area of all contaminants (rust, etc.) prior to welding. DC reverse polarity (electrode +) produces deep penetration; DC straight polarity (electrode - ) will have limited penetration and a flatter bead. AC prevents arc blow. A medium arc length should be maintained with either stringer or weave beads. Slag is easily removed with a light chipping hammer.

 

 

WearFacing

     SUPERIOR HIGH ALLOY ELECTRODE FOR MEDIUM IMPACT AND SEVERE ABRASION


                                                         General Characteristics
High deposition rate electrode that produces smooth beads and in most cases the slag comes off all by itself. The arc is easily controlled and prevents excessive dilution with the base metal. The high chromium content of these electrodes makes the weld deposits maintain their resistance even at elevated temperatures.

                                                                 Applications
Parts subjected to severe abrasion but with light impact such as equipment for processing soil, rock, coal, cement, ceramic matter, grinding plates, dredger teeth, conveyor and press screws, coal augers, agitators, earth augers and scrapers, snowmobile wear bars and snowplow edges.

                                                              Technical Data
Typical Hardness as welded:     Rc 56-60
Current:                                         AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode +)
Amperage:                                   80-125
Diameter:                                     1/8"
                                                       3.25mm

                                                                Procedures
Remove foreign material and unsound metal from surface to be welded. For best results and long service life an elastic cushion layer should be applied to the part before surfacing with this electrode. Use Problem Solver for a cushion layer on carbon steels and manganese steels, on cast iron use Nickel 99. When making the final surface with US Forge Wearfacing keep electrode vertical to the workpiece and maintain a short arc. Deposits must be kept thin, never more than two layers thick. To prevent excessive local heat build-up in the part, alternate welding area. Allow part to cool slowly.

 

 

308L Stainless Steel

                GENERAL PURPOSE, LOW CARBON STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODE


                                                         General Characteristics
High quality general purpose stainless steel electrode with a low carbon content that has excellent welding characteristics. The arc is very smooth and easy to control in all positions. It has outstanding arc-starting and restarting features with easy slag removal.

                                                                  Applications
Welding on 302, 304, 308 and 347 stainless steels. Designed for use on all normal and low carbon stainless steels except the molybdenum-bearing austenitic alloys. Ideal for welding materials that are subject to carbide precipitation. Normally used to repair household appliances, tanks, pipes and fittings.

                                                               Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:      up to 100,000 psi (70 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:          up to 62,000 psi (44 kg/mm2)
Elongation %:                        approx. 40
Corrosion Resistance:         good
Current:                                  AC or DC reverse polarity (electrode +)
Amperage:                            25-35         35-50          40-90           75-120
                                               1/16"           5/64"           3/32"            1/8"
                                               1.6mm        2.0mm        2.5mm          3.25mm

                                                                  Procedure
Thoroughly clean weld area of all foreign material with a stainless steel wire brush. A 60° bevel should be used when butt welding parts 3/16" (5.0mm) and heavier. Do not preheat. Tack parts to maintain alignment. Hold a medium short arc with electrode tilted at 15° in the direction of travel. Prevent excessive heat build-up during welding operations. Remove slag between passes. Allow to cool slowly.

 

 

E6011

ALL-POSITION, DEEP PENETRATING FAST FREEZE ELECTRODE. WELDS ON RUSTY OR PAINTED SURFACES.


                                                           General Characteristics
E6011 quality electrode with a forceful arc to penetrate scale, rust, paint and other contaminants. It has excellent operating characteristics in all positions. Use with AC or DC either polarity.

                                                                     Applications
Use on galvanized steels and steels that may have scale, rust or paint on the surfaces to be welded.

                                                                  Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:          up to 72,000 psi (50kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:              67,000 psi (48kg/mm2)
Elongation (in 2 inches):           24%
Current:                                       AC or DC either polarity
Amperage:                                  40-85           70-135             110-175
                                                     3/32"             1/8"                   5/32"
                                                     2.5mm          3.25mm            4.0mm
SPECIFICATIONS:                  AWS A5.1, ASME SFA 5.1 Class E6011

                                                                    Procedures
Weld area should be as clean as possible. Set amperage to the low side of the range for thin material, to the high side for heavier sections and surfaces containing scale, rust, paint or grease. Hold medium arc length for flat position. Use a slight weaving technique for vertical up. Vertical down requires higher amperage and fast travel speed. Wire brush between passes.

 

 

E6013

GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRODE FOR MILD STEEL. EXCELLENT FOR LIGHT GAUGE WORK ALL POSITION


                                                          General Characteristics
For all types of mild steel fabrication. Ideal for light gauge work. Best electrode available for vertical and overhead welding.

                                                                   Applications
Use for general production and repair work. Generally used for thin sections and sheet metal. For farm, industrial and construction where light fabrication and repair work is performed on a regular basis.

                                                                 Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:          up to 80,000 psi (56 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:              68,000 psi (48 kg/mm2)
Elongation:                                  24%
Current:                                        AC or DC either polarity
Amperage:                                  30-80          80-120         120-190
Diameter:                                    3/32"           1/8"               5/32"
                                                      2.5mm        3.25mm        4.0mm

                                                                      Procedure
Joints should be as clean as possible and close fitting. Use DC straight polarity for shallow penetration. DC reverse polarity will give deeper penetration. Excellent for use with low open circuit voltage AC welders. Tip the electrode slightly in the direction of travel. Maintain a close arc gap and use either stringer beads or slight weave. Slag is virtually self releasing.

 

 

E7014

                         HIGH DEPOSITION MILD STEEL ELECTRODE. ALL POSITION


                                                           General Characteristics
Added iron powder in the coating gives this electrode increased deposition. Shallow penetration, quick solidification, excellent restrike characteristics, easy slag removal and excellent bead appearance makes this electrode excellent for all position work.

                                                                    Applications
Production and repair of mild steel. Use on farm, industrial, and construction equipment. Excellent restrike characteristic and drag technique makes this electrode a favorite of all welders.

                                                                  Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:              up to 81,000 psi (56 kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:                  73,000 psi (51 kg/mm2)
Elongation:                                      26%
Current:                                            AC or DC either polarity
Amperage:                                      80-125           110-150              140-190
                                                          3/32"              1/8"                      5/32"
                                                          2.5mm            3.25mm              4.0mm

                                                                     Procedures
While special preparation of the base metal is not necessary in many cases, best results are obtained by first cleaning the weld area of grease, oxides or rust. Maintain a short arc. Use stringer beads or weave beads. When making stringer beads, a drag type technique may be used.

 

 

E7018

QUALITY, LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODE WITH MOISTURE GUARD COATING. FOR X-RAY QUALITY WELDS ON CONSTRUCTION STEELS.


                                                          General Characteristics
E7018 quality, iron powder low hydrogen electrode designed for joining construction grade and problem steels. Product features a moisture guard coating to minimize hydrogen embrittlement and under-bead cracking. Weldability is excellent on both AC and DC reverse polarity. The first choice for x-ray quality welds featuring high impact resistance.

                                                                   Applications
Used primarily on carbon and medium tensile steels, especially under conditions of restraint. Excellent for high sulphur and “tramp” steels, boiler plate and cast steel.

                                                                  Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:         up to 76,000 psi (54kg/mm2)
Typical Yield Strength:             69,000 psi (49kg/mm2)
Elongation (in 2 inches):          30%
Current:                                       AC or DC (reverse polarity)
Amperage:                                 60-100            110-150            140-200
                                                     3/32"               1/8"                     5/32"
                                                     2.5mm             3.25mm             4.0mm
SPECIFICATIONS: AWS A5.1, ASME SFA 5.1 Class E7018

                                                                    Procedure
Area to be welded should be clean and free of surface contamination such as rust, scale, grease, etc. On DC, use reverse polarity (electrode +) Preheat of 400° to 450° should be employed with heavy sections and hardenable grades of base metal. For highest x-ray quality, maintain a short arc gap. On vertical welds, start at bottom and weave slightly while pausing at the edges. For root passes, set a minimum gap (3/32" for 1/8" electrodes) and run stringer beads. For fill and cover passes, a weaving technique is best employed. When AC welding, it is recommended to set the machine at the higher end of the range.

 

 

E71T-GS Flux-Cored MIG Wire

PREMIUM GASLESS, FLUX-CORED MILD STEEL, ALL POSITION FOR MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR WELDING OF MILD STEEL AND GALVANIZED STEELS.


                                                          General Characteristics
This self-shielded, flux-cored, mild steel wire is designed for single pass, semi-automatic welding applications encountered by the maintenance and repair welder. It is excellent for carbon steels, galvanized steels and zinc-coated steels. The specially formulated flux contained inside the wire eliminates the need for an external shielding gas and provides the necessary slag to produce the same high quality weld as US Forge Steel. US Forge Flux-Cored MIG Wire is excellent for use with small constant current wire feeders which are lightweight.

                                                                   Applications
Fabrication and repair of lightweight structural steel, trailers, tanks, hoppers and machinery parts. Excellent for use on fillet and lap welds on thin gauge steel where burn through is a problem with other wires and electrodes. An ideal electrode to use in drafty or windy conditions where gas-shielded wire cannot be used.

                                                                 Technical Data
Typical Tensile Strength:              up to 83,000 psi
Current:                                            DCEN (electrode-)
Diameters Available:                    .030", .035", .045"
Spool Sizes Available:                  2 lb., 10lb.
SPECIFICATIONS:                       AWS A5.20 SFA 5.20 E71T-GS

RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS:
Diameter            Volts               Amps                Wire Stickout Approx.
.030"                  14-17             25-100                         3/8" - 1/2"
.035"                  13-19             50-150                         3/8" - 1/2"
.045"                  15-18             75-200                         1/2" - 3/4"

 

 

ER70S-6

                                                   SOLID MILD STEEL MIG WIRE


                                                          General Characteristics
The US Forge ER70S-6 is an excellent wire designed for single and multiple pass welding. It can also be used for sheet metal applications when smooth welds are needed. A shielding gas is required when welding with this wire.

                                                                     Applications
Fabrication and repair of lightweight structural steel. Excellent choice for welding Low Carbon Steel (Mild Steel). Ideal for body panel repair, fences, yard tools, etc.

                                                                   Technical Data
Current: DC Reverse
Shielding: Gas Co2
Typical Tensile Strength: 70,000 psi
Typical Yield Strength: 58,000 psi
Elongation: 22%

RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS:
Diameter             Volts               Amps
.023"                       40                  125
.030"                       50                  150
.035"                       75                  175

                                                                       Procedure
Clean area to be welded with wire brush, grinder, etc. Weld area to be free of paint, rust, grease, oil, etc. Base material 1/4" or thicker should be beveled prior to joining.

 

 

ER5356

                                                           ALUMINUM MIG WIRE


                                                          General Characteristics
The US Forge ER5356 has a high magnesium content. This will help increase weld strength and decrease crack sensitivity when welding on base metals; 5086, 5083 or 5456. The US Forge ER5356 also provides excellent ductility when welding base metals; 5456, 6061, 6063, 7005 and 7039.

                                                                    Applications
Excellent for repair of automotive, truck and bus parts. Also for tanks, pipes, ladders, shelves, regrigeration equipment, foundry patterns and many other aluminum structures. Repair of machining errors and buildup of missing sections of casting, extrusions, plates, etc.

                                                                  Technical Data
US Forge ER5356 meets AWS A5.10 ER5356
Current:                   DC Reverse
Shielding Gas:       100% Argon

RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS:
Diameter            Volts               Amps
.030"                  15-22             70-110
.035"                  17-24             75-115

                                                                     Procedure
Use a stainless steel brush to clean the weld area. The stainless steel brush should be used only for aluminum. Base material 1/4" and thicker should be beveled prior to welding.
 

 

ER308L

                                                  STAINLESS STEEL MIG WIRE


                                                            General Characteristics
US Forge ER308L is an excellent choice for welding stainless steel and provides a smooth, clean and bright surface.

                                                                     Applications
This wire is designed for dairy, pulp, paper, refinery and chemical equipment. Low carbon content reduces carbide precipitation.

                                                                   Technical Data
Current:                          DC Reverse
Shielding Gas:             75% Argon, 25% Co2
Amps:                            40-130
Volts:                             14-20
SPECIFICATIONS:    AWS A5.9 ER308L SFA 5.9

                                                                        Procedure
Clean materials of foreign substances, set parameters to ranges recommended (appropriate for base metal thickness and position) by machine manufacturer. Use stringer passes to minimize overheating which can cause distortion.

 

 

Definitions of Welding Terms

AC or Alternating Current:
Electricity which reverses its direction based on current cycle (sine wave). For 60 cycle current, the current goes in one direction and then in the other direction 60 times in the same second, so that the current changes its direction 120 times in one second.

Arc Blow:
Magnetic disturbance of the arc which causes it to waver from its intended path.

Arc Length:
The distance from the end of the electrode to the point where the arc makes contact with the work surface.

As Welded:
The condition of weld metal, welded joints and weldments after welding prior to any subsequent thermal or mechanical treatment.

Base Metal:
The metal to be welded.

Butt Joint:
A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same place.

Carbon:
The addition of carbon to steel increases its ability to harden and adds strength and wear resistance.

Carbon Steel:
Steel that owes its properties chiefly to the presence of carbon, without substantial amounts of other alloying elements; also termed “ordinary steel,” “straight carbon steel,” “plain carbon steel.”

Chromium:
Chromium raised the ultimate strength, hardness and toughness, and adds wear resistance to steel.

Coated Electrode:
A filler-metal electrode, used in arc welding, consisting of a metal core wire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal and stabilizes the arc.

DC or Direct Current:
Electric current which flows only in one direction. In welding an arc welding process wherein the power supply at the arc is direct current.

Flat Position:
The welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint, the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.

Flux:
Material used to prevent, dissolve, or facilitate removal of oxides and other undesirable surface substances.

Low Carbon Steel:
Steel containing 20% or less carbon. Refferred to as mild steel.

Manganese:
Manganese helps to make the steel sound, increases the depth of hardening and makes it easier to work.

Molybdenum:
Molybdenum increases red hardness, wear resistance, hardness depth, and inclines the steel to oil or air hardening.

Nickel:
Nickel adds toughness and wear resistance to steel when used in conjunction to other alloys such as chromium.

Open-Circuit Voltage:
The voltage between the output terminals of the welding machine when no current is flowing in the welding circuit.

Pass (also: Weld Pass):
A single progression of a welding or surfacing operation along a joint, weld deposit or substrate. The result of a pass is a weld bead, layer or spray deposit.

Peening:
Mechanical working of metal by means of hammer blows.

Penetration:
The distance the fusion zone extends below the surface of the part or parts being welded.

Porosity:
Gas pockets or voids in metal.

Postheating:
A process used immediately after welding, whereby heat is applied to the weld zone either for tempering or for providing a controlled rate of cooling, in order to avoid a hard or brittle structure.

Reverse Polarity:
The arrangement of arc welding leads wherein the work is the negative pole and the electrode is the positive pole in the arc circuit.

Slag Inclusion:
Non-metallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal.

Spatter:
In arc and gas welding, the metal particles expelled during welding and which do not form a part of the weld.

Straight Polarity:
The arrangement of arc welding leads wherein the work is the positive pole and the electrode is the negative pole of the arc circuit.

Stringer Bead:
A type of weld bead made without appreciable transverse oscillation.

Tack Weld:
A weld (generally short) made to hold parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.

Tensile Strength:
The value obtained by dividing the maximum load observed during tensile straining by the specimen cross sectional area before straining. Also called “ultimate strength.”

Underbead Crack:
A crack in the heat affected zone not extending to the surface of the base metal.

Vanadium:
Retards grain growth, increases toughness, may add red hardness and permits higher hardening or quenching temperatures.

Weaving:
A technique of depositing weld metal in which the electrode is oscillated.

Weld Metal:
That portion of a weld which had been melted during welding.

 

Whipping:
A term applied to an inward and upward movement of the electrode which is employed in vertical welding to avoid undercut.

Yield Strength:
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from proportionality of stress to strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals such as aluminum- base and magnesium-base alloys, while a 0.5% total elongation under load is frequently used for copper alloys.

 
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